All of this can be answered though a “standard form contract”. This type of agreement is a contractual model that defines the conventional rules to refer to throughout the process of negotiating and signing the contract. They clearly indicate the transfer’s time and place, the transport risks from the seller to the buyer, as well as the transport costs, acessory operations and obligations.

The most knew and developed are the Incoterms 2000, defined by the International Chamber of Commerce (www.iccwbo.org).

Yes, they are the “Delivery Terms”. They are based on practices and have not yet reached a level of formalization equal to that given by the International Chamber of Commerce in business terms.

As far as international shipments concerned, the conditions taken into consideration are those of FEDESPEDI (National Federation of International Forwarding Companies). They have been filed with all the C.C.I.A.A. on 10.3.1975/66/2008. These General Conditions were also published in the Official Gazette n.66 on the same day. Updated in November, these governs the whole international shipping process. Similar General Conditions drawn up by FEDERCORRIERI for those who regards national shipments.

Legislative Decree 286/2005 revoked Article 1 of Law 450/1985 concerning carrier liability limits and introduced, as from 24.01.2006, a new liability limit of 1 Euro per kg gross weight of lost or damaged goods. This new limit is uniform for both full load and groupage transport.

The liability of the road carrier is regulated by the “Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road” C.M.R. The Convention applies, regardless of the domicile and citizenship of the parties, when the collection and delivery of goods take place in different States provided at least one of them has ratified the Convention (if an Italian carrier transports goods with destination France for a principal who is also Italian, the relationship that develops between the two is governed by the C.M.R.). For carriage carried out under the C.M.R. regime, the limit of liability is 8,33 SDR (Special Drawing Rights – an amount equivalent to approximately €10,00) for each kilogram of gross weight of goods lost or damaged, whatever the nature and value of the goods transported.

The forwarder is required to submit its activity in special lists kept by Chambers of Commerce. In order to be registered, it is necessary to demonstrate the required professional ability (with the presence of a technical director for each registered business unit), economic ability (with the delivery to the Chamber of Commerce of a guarantee surety) and moral ability (with verification that the legal representative has no pending charges). In addition to the registration, the law requires a public security licence. Another element of assessment is FEDESPEDI’s membership (National Federation of International Forwarding Companies) (www.vetrina.com/fedespedi). For each company office, Fedespedi issues a certificate that can be requested in duplicate.

FEDESPEDI (National Federation of International Forwarding Companies) finalised and filed its General Terms and Conditions with all the C.C.I.A.A. on 10.3.1975, publishing them on the same date in the Official Gazette No. 66. Updated in November 2008, these the whole international shipping process. As for domestic shipments, there are similar General Terms and Conditions drawn out by FEDERCORRIERI.

For each type of service it is required: the date of collection, the type of forwarding, the location of collection if different from the applicant’s address, the location of destination, the quantity of the goods (gross weight and volume or size specification in the case of bulky packages) any commitments and delivery constraints.

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